Expansion to Overseas Markets (reasons and priorities)Edit


Foreign markets were necessary to expel surplus since US markets lacked stability during depression to hold goods.

Farmers couldn't continue rural life. Corporate moguls could gain money and have more opportunities overseas.

Keep ahead of competition via monocultural farming (e.g. Cuba, sugar)


-Humanitarian: Spread of democracy - social darwinism / racial superiority, spread of religion

-Preclusive Imperialism (Schlesinger)

-International super power

Turner's Frontier ThesisEdit

-Quickly became popular amongst intellectuals.

-Differentiated US gov from Euro government.

-Stated that the Frontier created freedom by: "breaking bonds of custom, offering new experiences, and calling out new institutions and activities"; brought Americans a sense of nationality.

-Was first announced in paper: "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"

-Expansion used as an outlet by U.S. society to relieve domestic tension. Thus expansion was necessary to preserve democracy and social stability.

Manifest DestinyEdit

  • The 19th century American belief that the United states was "destined" to own land across the entire expanse of the continent, from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast.
  • Much like imperialism was used as a pretext to expand into other nations, Manifest Destiny was used as a pretext to go to war with Mexico.
  • Imperialism/Manifest Destiny are similar ideas set in different time periods

Monroe DoctrineEdit

  • President Monroe, Dec 1823
  • Pretty much states that the US is the sole guardian of the Americas.
  • Foreign powers in the Western Hemisphere will result in a U.S. military response.
  • U.S. wouldn't interfere with Europe in exchange.
  • Was later used to justify action against Spain in Cuba / Latin America

Washington's Farewell AddressEdit

Washington's farewell address had three primary messages:

1. The US should remain a neutral nation

2. The US should stay out of foreign affairs that do not directly affect it.

3: If at all possible, avoid political parties

Roosevelt Corollary (1904)Edit

  • President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.
  • The purpose of this document is to say that America should only intervene in other countries when they do something wrong, and in those cases it is justifiable.
  • It is to act as a response to anti-imperialists.
  • It basically tells everyone when America will or will not interviene.
  • He states that what America does is not mainly in their own interests but for the welfare of other countires.
  • Subtly notes that the U.S. is the international force for justice. Worded vaguely to cover for America's international actions in the future.

Admiral Mahan (position on the imperialism debate)Edit

Stressed the importance of the American navy.

Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History", naval power is essential to America's rise as an international power.

The Battleship Maine and its SignificanceEdit

The USS Maine was a ship in the US navy stationed in Havana Harbor which blew up on Feb. 15th 1898, killing many Americans. Though now known to be false, Spain was blamed for the explosion in March 21st by the Naval Court of Inquiry. This sparked the anger of an already frustrated American public, and acted as a catalyst for McKinley to ask Congress to authorize military action against Spain (thus leading to the Spanish American War). "Remember the Maine" was a battle cry of sorts during the war used by US soldiers.

The Dolphin Incident and Arrest of U.S. Troops in MexicoEdit

US sailors from the USS Dolphin were arrested in the restricted area of Tampico. They were soon released with an apology, but humiliating acts of a formal disavowal, severe punishment for the responsible Mexican officer, and a twenty one gun salute to the American flag were demanded. Huerta could not grant these for his political reputation. This was used by Pres. Wilson as a pretext for intervention in Mexico. Wilson did not recognize Huerta's government for moral reasons, he had concerns for American interests in Mexico, and a German merchant ship was heading to Veracruz. The US soon occupied Veracruz, causing anti-American feelings in Mexico. Carranza denounced US actions.

Platt AmendmentEdit

  • Proposed by Senator Platt (Connecticut) to supplant Teller Amendment.
  • It gave the United States "the right to interviene for the preservation of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a gov. adequate for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty..." (Zinn 303).
  • Needed for Guantanamo Bay base.

Teller AmendmentEdit

  • Established by Senator Henry M. Teller (Connecticut)
  • "Pledging the United States not to annex Cuba" (Zinn 297).
  • Spain was responsible for Cuban debt.
  • Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines given to the U.S. (for $20 million)

Strategic (not economic) Interests in Central AmericaEdit

  • Motivated by Monroe Doctrine; control over C. America would make it difficult for foreign powers to take over the hemisphere.
  • Islands such as Cuba could be used to protect the Panama Canal
  • The panama canal connecting the atlantic and pacific oceans would improve trade an commerce

Williams and "Open Door Policy"Edit

  • Williams believed that America took to Imperialism primarily for economic interests. One example he cites is the Open Door Policy that came with international intervention.

  • The Open Door Policy is "an open door 'through which America's preponderant economic strength would enter and dominate all underdeveloped areas of the world" (Grobb and Billias).

  • Americans wanted China's markets. "It failed because it was too successful" (Williams?).

  • Americans essentially took China's markets to their advantage, harming China due to lack of competition. Prices soared and America felt the feedback. [Citation needed]

Schlessinger and the spheres of influence/balance of power approachEdit

Schlessinger argued that US imperialism was due to classic European raisons d'etat (reasons of state), rather than economic motivations.

This required an empire to 'feel safe' from the growing European armies. Furthermore, it desired national prestige such as with a large navy

The Monroe Doctrine required that the US keep Europe out of the Americas, thus defense had to keep this in mind. Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other islands could be used to defend American interests in Latin America. This also required that the US keep Latin America in order so that revolutions would not break out. New governments tended to ignore the debts that previous governments owed, which would then bring Europeans into Latin America.

Preclusive Imperialism

Porfirio Diaz (length of rule and leadership style)Edit

Overthrew Mexican president Tejada in 1876. Ruled through 1911.

Under Diaz Mexico's economy grew at an unprecedented rate. But, ruled with force. Land belonged to elite, foreign investments took away from much of Mexico's natural sources of wealth.

He was a reactionary ruler.

"Great Mexican BBQ" (full of corruption, people he didn't like disappeared)

He had support of the Zapatas but lost it due to over liberation. [Anyone: What is this saying?]

Diaz was a dictator who ruled for 35 years. In 1908 he announced that he would welcome an opposing party, Madero took up this challenge (By allowing growth of opposition party in a fraud election). Diaz was alarmed by the popularity Madero had, and exiled him in 1910.

Venustiano CarranzaEdit

  • He was a landowner who had served Diaz originally, but joined Madero in 1911 and was appointed governor of Coahuila.
  • Assumed title of first chief of Constitutionalist Army
  • Conservative Mexican President 1914-1920 after Madero was killed. Progressive Controller.
  • Overthrew Huerta, Madero's assassin.
  • As the Constitutionalists were overthrowing the previous government, he agreed to sign an agreement proposed by Villa which called for democratic, radical changes regarding land distribution although he disagreed (in order to preserve alliance with Villa).
  • Zapata and Villa overthrew him, but in 1915 he attained popularity with social/agrarian reform: Plan of Guadelupe. 1917: won presidency again.
  • Created new Constitution after his second rise to power.
  • Despite the radical changes of the constitution he did not uphold most of the new articles, and corruption returned to the government
  • Fled from Veracruz and was killed after his plan to manipulate the elections of 1920 was discovered.

Alvaro ObregonEdit

  • Had been a soldier since 1913, loyal to Mexico. Had supported Carranza but eventually turned on him (for the sake of the country ofc).
  • Had been Commander in Chief of Mexican Army (Carranza-appointed).
  • President of Mexico in Nov. 1920 (after Carranza) until 1924. Progressive Controller.
  • Mexico had achieved peace so reconstruction could begin.
  • Labor, agricultural, education reforms.
  • 1923: Secured recognition by U.S. government. 1924-28, politically boring/inactive.
  • Re-elected in 1928 but killed before taking office

Emilio ZapataEdit

  • Southern socialist leader
  • Mexican Revolutionary - worked with Madero against Diaz.
  • Displeased with the mitigating steps leaders such as Madero and Carranza were taking
  • Formed the Plan of Ayala, land reforms redistributing land to peasants.
  • Fought Huerta independently, not with Villa/Carranza/Obregon, did not recognize Carranza's leadership
  • United with Villa to later take the capital after the Aguascalientes convention
  • Continued to resist against Carranza until his death in 1919. Murdered by Carranza's agents.

Pancho VillaEdit

  • Northern Leader, governor of Chihuahua (1913-14). Leader of Constitutionalists.
  • Had a reputation for taking from the rich and giving to the poor.
  • Social reform: Created 50 schools in Chihuahua City. (and more)
  • Tried to upset the balance of power in Mexico. He planned terrorist attacks on America (which killed Americans) because he wanted America to invade Mexico and get rid of Carranza. He brought a news reporter with him.
  • He used revenues from the estates to fund his social programs and his army.
  • He was eventually defeated by Carranza (in acuality he was defeated by his general Obregon)

Goals of the U.S. Occupation in Cuba 1899-1902 (see Keen 414)Edit

1. Make Cuba a self-governing protectorate

2. Repair damages from the war and provide sanitation and services needed for economic recovery (getting rid of diseases, national educational system)

3. Absorb Cuba into the US economic sphere of influence (Cuba grows sugar, 20% cut on tariff of Cuban sugar being exported into America)

Williams' and Zinn's Interpretation of U.S. Interests in CubaEdit

Williams - The U.S. had a purely economic interest in global involvement. Foreign markets and securing future trade routes were the source of any motivation in imperialism.

Applying this to Cuba, the U.S. only went into Cuba for its cheap labor, sugar, and its investments that were threatened by the rebellion.

Zinn - American elite wanted to take advantage of political/economic interests in Mexico/Cuba. Humanitarian reasons were but excuses for the underlying motives.

Aguinaldo and his Role in the Filipino ResistanceEdit

Aguinaldo: Led the Filipino revolts against Spanish, then bought out by Spain.

Got U.S. support but betrayed later, revolted for four years since he did not approve of U.S. being in the Philipines.

Only after he became president of the Philipines did he form an alliance with the U.S.

Williams Jennings Bryan (position on the imperialism debate)Edit

  • Democrat that ran for presidency (lost). Helped Woodrow Wilson win presidency.
  • Did not want expansion because he was afraid that the intermingling with other races would bring the white race down. Pro-racial purity.

  • Bryan opposed the annexation of the Philippines (though he did support the Treaty of Paris that ended the war). Bryan gave a speech at the Democratic National Convention in 1900 called "The Paralyzing Influence of Imperialism." In this speech he discusses his views against the annexation of the Philippines, questioning the United States's right to overpower people of another country just for a military base. He mentions, at the beginning of the speech, that the United States should not try to emulate the imperialism of Great Britain and other European countries. (Direct quote from WIKIPEDIA, trust at your own risk)

Theodore Roosevelt (career highlights, role in Spanish American war)Edit

The Roosevelt Corollary.

Had the Great White Fleet go around the world as a demonstration of America's power.


Add information on relevance in SpanishAmerican War

Albert Beveridge (position on the imperialism debate)Edit

  • Beveridge is known as one of the great American imperialists. He supported the annexation of the Philippines.(Quote from WIKIPEDIA, trust at your own risk)

Sanford Dole (hint: pineapple guy)Edit

  • Hawaiian, helped overthrow Queen
  • Led Hawaii's economy after annexation, Dole's pineapple plantations were key.
  • Wanted modernization / western culture with Hawaii's society/culture.

Jose Marti and his Role in Cuban IndependenceEdit

  • He founded El Partido Revolucionario Cubano (the cuban reovolutionary party) in 1892.
  • He was in the upper class and was well versed in the American founding fathers and he looked to America for economic, , and support
  • The spiritual, intellectual, and organizational leader of 19th century Cuban revolution (quiz) (moved from Grau)
  • Did not really want U.S. intervention in fear of them dominating Cuba. Believed in solid middle class structure.

Gerado MachadoEdit

  • Liberal candidate who sought to restore a sense of Nationalism to cuba in 1925 despite his strong ties to the US. Once in power, Machado's economic reforms were matched by harsh oppossition of political dissent. (quiz)
  • Head of Liberal Party, 1920
  • Cuban President / Dictator (1925-1933). General in Cuban Independence War ('95-'98) and businessman.
  • Unsuccessful in reviving economy in public programs, as they were powered by foreign loans.
  • More dissent, more political persecution. 1931, Terror Reign.
  • 1933 Strikes, army dissent, U.S. pressure exiled him.

  • He fed people to sharks. Boss.

Ramon Grau San MartinEdit

Cuban president from only 1933 to 1934, he alienated the US by cutting off American financial and agricultural interests, refusing to pay New York bank, and seizing two American sugar mills.

US therefore did not recognize his government.

"Bind of the Reformer"

Opponent to Machado. Took part in Batist's revolt against Machado

Attained power from Student Council who did not know what to do.

U.S. thought he was too radical, he resigned in 1934.

1944 Re-elected, throwing Batista's plan for a planted stooge that he would control.

Grau abolished censorship, bettered health, education, living conditions - but government was corrupted.

Ran against Batista in 1954, but resigned before election.

Fulgencio BatistaEdit

Batista arose during Grau's regime

Gained power with help from America through Sumner Welles

Ran politics in Cuba behind the scenes for several years using president puppets

He became dictator twice, once in 1940 and again from 1952-1954, only to be succeeded by Fidel Castro

President/Dictator ruled from 1933 either behind the scenes or publicly.

Army chief of staff in military coup.

Until 1944, when his stooge was beaten by Grau.

Regained power in 1952, until 1959. Corruption ensues; he tried to limit sugar production because he believed that continued monocultural agriculture would hurt Cuba.

Ambassador H.L. Wilson and his Involvement in Mexican AffairsEdit

Supported the counterrevolutionary uprisings, secretly negotiating with Diaz and Huerta

The US turned against Madero because he refused to give any favors and denounced any foreign investors. Wilson didn't believe Madero's plan would work, due to social issues, poverty, illiteracy. Expected corruption and violence.

Wilson threatened intervention on Madero and fueled Huerta's overthrow of Madero. He also settled the debate between Diaz and Huerta over who should head the new regime.

He called Huerta the "Savior of Mexico"

President Woodrow Wilson and his Involvement in Mexican AffairsEdit

  • 1912 Elected
  • "Moral" foreign affair policy. Protestant values of obligation/service were important.
  • US president that hoped Villa would allow mexico to be contolled by the Us
  • Refused the government of Huerta. Complete opposite of Taft. Tried to ally with revolutionaries instead.
  • Did not like Carranza but dealt with it because of priorities: WWI
  • Wanted to ensure an economically stable Mexico

President McKinley and the Spanish American WarEdit

By threatening intervention, Mckinley forced Spain to grant Cuba independence

Then the battleship Maine is blown up and accusition points toward Spain

Mckinley asks Congress for military intervention and thus the war.

- McKinley wanted to spread Christianity.

Yellow Journalism and the Role of the Hearst and Pultizer NewspapersEdit

"muckraker" -- journalist, reporter, or writer who investigates stories about crime and corruption

Hearst and Pultizer recorded the mistreatment of the Cubans by the Spanish like General Weyler and exaggerated it in the newspapers to evoke sympathy in the American people, forming a valid pretext for intervention

Yellow Journalism: Exaggeration, etc. to create sympathy from American readers. In this case it was towards Cubans, with the intent of arousing war sentiments.

President Taft and the Goal of Dollar DiplomacyEdit

Taft followed the poilcy from 1909-1913, it aimed at furthering the interests of the US abroad by encouraging the investment of capital (spending money) in foreign countries.

Basically it is extremely similar to the Open Door Policy because it aims to get involved by investing money in other countries like building production facilities

Taft wanted to uphold economic and political stability.

Wanted to send loans using USDollars so that those countries would eventually depend on America, expanding its sphere of influence.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his Relationship with Latin AmericaEdit

Wanted to continue father's expansionist ideas, so he continued to try for Latin American control.

Good Neighbor Policy of 1934Edit

  • This policy was basically created so that America would not intervene as much in other countries unless it was necessary to do so.
  • U.S. would be more peaceful, instead of using military it would try to negociate economic/political incentives for L.America. Similar to Roosevelt Corollary, but this focuses more on altruistic goals than economic ones, focusing on bringing a nation to a degree of stability.

Francisco Madero's Program for MexicoEdit

  • Democracy for the Elite
  • "Madero regarded democracy as an instrument of social control that would promote the acceptance of capitalism through the grant of limited political and social reforms, with a large stress on education" (The Mexican Revolution--and After)
  • Allowed workers to organize trade union and to strike (quiz)
  • Supported large land holdings as the only way that Mexico could moderndize (quiz)
  • Also it gave the masses the illusion of power and participation in political life, but all decision making was vested in the elite

Reasons Why the U.S. Originally Supported MaderoEdit

The US desired ultimately for the stablization of Mexico for economic interests and Diaz's rule was out-dated and he turned to much violence and dictator-like government.

Madero would provide new reforms and the US thought he could display a more positive attitude toward US interests.

Madero's plan appeared like it was similar to America's methods, which was a plus. Over time the failures were obvious and HL Wilson was convinced that it would not work.

Difference Between the Land Reform Policies of Villa and ZapataEdit

Villa was from the North so his policy focused on redistributing the land because the North was grazing land and small plots weren't good enough to make a profit. Needed larger plots.

Zapata was from the South so his policy focused on small plots because Southern soil was really rich and peasants wouldn't need a lot of it to prosper. He wanted land for everyone. Not just the peasants, like what Villa had in mind.

The Mexican Constitution of 1917Edit

Carranza accepted, but did not / could not implement all articles of the Constitution. Permitted people to form organizations given they have a lawful reason. This disabled rebellion, and other features (debt, contracted servants). Worker strikes OK. Article 123 states that only Fed. Gov. can edit labor laws. Discouraged foreign ownership of Mexican land. (Article 27).

Article 3

  • Freedom of Religious beliefs
  • Nationalism

Article 27

  • Land Distribution
  • "Ownership of lands....vested originally in the Nation, which has had, and has, the right to transmit title thereof to private persons.."
  • Only Citizens of Mexico have the right to own land.
  • State my grant to foreigners, provided they agree before the Ministry of Foreign Relations and obide by all laws in Mexico of owning land.
  • the Church may not hold land

Article 123

  • Labor Laws
  • 8 hour work days
  • Men and women earn equal pay
  • Children labor laws
  • Minimum wages
  • Strikes are legal when they have purpose of attaining equal rights.
  • Strikes are illegal in time of war

Plan of San Luis PotosiEdit

When Madero ran against Diaz during the 1910 elections, Diaz imprisoned Madero. Once Madero was released, he declared the 1910 election null and void, and encouraged Mexican people to take up arms against the government. Madero became the provisional president. This marked the beginning of Madero's revolution.

Plan of AyalaEdit

Proposed by Zapata, it proclaimed to redistrubute the lands usurped by the haciendos to the original owners.

Denounced Madero's position and called for real, free elections after the country had stabilized.

Wanted to avoid land power in hacendados (elite) in favor of distributing land to subjects.

Named Orozco as leader of revolution but he switched sides, so Zapata became the leader.

Plan of GuadeloupeEdit

Issued by Carranza, it called for the overthrow of the dictator Huerta and the restoration of the constitutional government.


- Huerta is not the President of Mexico.

- Legislation and Judicial Powers of the Federation are not valid.

- For the allied army, First Chief of the Army as a Constitutionalist. Carranza.

- As soon as peace has been attained general elections will take place.


Monoculture - Dependence on one product for economic stability and trade openings. "A people that entrusts its subsistence to one product alone commits suicide," - Jose Marti

Cuba was a country whose economy relied on the cultivation of a single crop: sugar. In the long run, this severely damaged the Cuban economy

-When international sugar prices sunk, Cuba's entire economy took a hit

-Workforce trained only in this specific field; sugar production eliminated any other form of industry in Cuba

-Cuba began importing goods that it could have produced internally (that is, if the sugar industry hadn't taken over)

Traits of Pre-Capitalist SocietiesEdit

  • Societies of Feudal Europe of sometimes Africa
  • Lack of investments of property
  • Great amounts of wealth was in the hands of few and kept away from the masses. (The masses sometimes counted as part of the wealth)
  • They usually had a monarchy ~ where a king had total control
  • The Free Market was nonexistant. Instead, the individual in control (The King) also controlled the economy.
  • There is little regard to economic freedom
  • One could not buy or sell land
  • Wages cannot be negotiated
  • Employment was inherited from the Father and generally did not change.
  1. 1st son gets the land
  2. 2nd son goes into the military
  3. 3rd son goes into the church
  • Land = Power
  • Power, Valor, and Honor are important in this society
  • Power = Wealth
  • It was believed that "it was easier to fit a camel through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to get into heaven". In short, rich men were generally seen as corrupt, and evil and achieved their wealth through nefarious means.
  • Wealth and profit are not motivaters in this society
  • Wealth was not for the technology or efficiency, but for comfort

Rudyard Kipling and the Poem, "The White Man's Burden"Edit

Symbolic of racial ideas of the time. Specifically about Filipinos. Has themes of social Darwinism, insisting that Americans take control over the Filipinos for their profit.

Take up the White Man's burden--

Send forth the best ye breed--

Go, bind your sons to exile

To serve your captives' need;

To wait, in heavy harness,

On fluttered folk and wild--

Your new-caught sullen peoples,

Half devil and half child.

Take up the White Man's burden--

In patience to abide,

To veil the threat of terror

And check the show of pride;

By open speech and simple,

An hundred times made plain,

To seek another's profit

And work another's gain.

Take up the White Man's burden--

The savage wars of peace--

Fill full the mouth of Famine,

And bid the sickness cease;

And when your goal is nearest

(The end for others sought)

Watch sloth and heathen folly

Bring all your hope to nought.

Take up the White Man's burden--

No iron rule of kings,

But toil of serf and sweeper--

The tale of common things.

The ports ye shall not enter,

The roads ye shall not tread,

Go, make them with your living

And mark them with your dead.

Take up the White Man's burden,

And reap his old reward--

The blame of those ye better

The hate of those ye guard--

The cry of hosts ye humour

(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:--

"Why brought ye us from bondage,

Our loved Egyptian night?"

Take up the White Man's burden--

Ye dare not stoop to less--

Nor call too loud on Freedom

To cloak your weariness.

By all ye will or whisper,

By all ye leave or do,

The silent sullen peoples

Shall weigh your God and you.

Take up the White Man's burden!

Have done with childish days--

The lightly-proffered laurel,

The easy ungrudged praise:

Comes now, to search your manhood

Through all the thankless years,

Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,

The judgment of your peers.

Plutarco CallesEdit

You don't need to know this person -supported Madero against Diaz

-aided Obregon and Carranza against Huerta and Villa

-1924 becomes Mexico's president

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